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Linking, Equating, & Scaling

All-access Pass
This provides immediate access to ALL print and digital modules in the portal by "registering" you for each and displaying all modules as a single collection as part of this pass.
All-access Pass (PRINT ONLY)
This provides access to a ZIP folder with all 45 previously published print modules.
Module 06: Equating Methods in Classical Test Theory
In this print module, Dr. Michael J. Kolen promotes a conceptual understanding of test form equating using traditional methods in classical test theory (CTT) such as mean, linear, and equipercentile equating with special attention to nonequivalent groups and equating error. Keywords: classical test theory, CTT, equating design, equating error, equating methods, equipercentile equating, linear equating, mean equating, nonequivalent groups, ​scaling, test form equating​
Module 10: Equating Methods in Item Response Theory
In this print module, Dr. Linda L. Cook and Dr. Daniel R. Eignor provide the basis for understanding the process of score equating through the use of item response theory (lRT). Keywords: calibration, equating, equating method, estimation, item response theory, IRT, parameter, scale, true-score equating
Module 31: Scaling
In this print module, Dr. Ye Tong and Dr. Michael J. Kolen describe different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrate how to incorporate various sources of information into a score scale, and introduce vertical scaling and its related designs and methodologies as a special type of scaling. Keywords: item response theory, IRT, linear transformation, nonlinear transformation, raw score, scale score, scaling, score precision, score reporting, vertical scaling
Module 33: Population Invariance in Linking and Equating
In this print module, Dr. Anne C. Huggins and Dr. Randall D. Penfield provide a comprehensive overview of population invariance in linking and equating and the relevant methodology developed for evaluating violations of invariance. Keywords: equating, fairness, group-to-overall method, invariance, linking, linking function, omnibus method, pairwise method, validity
Module 36: Quantifying Error and Uncertainty Reductions in Scaling Functions
​In this print module, Dr. Tim Moses describes and extends X-to-Y regression measures that have been proposed for use in educational assessment of X-to-Y scaling and equating results. Keywords: concordance, equating, ​heteroscedastic, regression, prediction error, scaling, ​scaling error, X-to-Y, Y-toX