Attention: You need to quickly create a (free!) user account within the Elevate learning management system (this website) to access any modules - you do NOT have to be an NCME member to do this. 

Reliability & Validity

All-access Pass
This provides immediate access to ALL print and digital modules in the portal by "registering" you for each and displaying all modules as a single collection as part of this pass.
Digital Module 01: Reliability in Classical Test Theory
​In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Charlie Lewis and Dr. Michael Chajewski provide a two-part introduction to the topic of reliability from the perspective of classical test theory (CTT). Keywords: classical test theory, CTT, congeneric, KR-20, KR-21, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation, reliability, ​Spearman-Brown formula, parallel, tau-equivalent, test-retest, validity
Digital Module 02: Scale Reliability in Structural Equation Modeling
​In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Greg Hancock and Dr. Ji An provide an overview of scale reliability from the perspective of structural equation modeling (SEM) and address some of the limitations of Cronbach’s α. Keywords: congeneric, Cronbach’s alpha, ​reliability, scale reliability, SEM, s​tructural equation modeling, McDonald’s omega, model fit, parallel, tau-equivalent
Digital Module 09: Sociocognitive Assessment for Diverse Populations
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Robert [Bob] Mislevy and Dr. Maria Elena Oliveri introduce and illustrate a sociocognitive perspective on educational measurement, which focuses on a variety of design and implementation considerations for creating fair and valid assessments for learners from diverse populations with diverse sociocultural experiences. Keywords: assessment design, Bayesian statistics, cross-cultural assessment, diverse populations, educational measurement, evidence-centered design, fairness, international assessments, prototype, reliability, sociocognitive assessment, validity
Module 03: Reliability of Scores From Teacher-Made Tests
In this print module, Dr. David A. Frisbie discusses the reliability of teacher-made tests. Keywords: homogeneity, internal analysis, motivation, reliability, reliability coefficient, ​standardized testing, test scores
Module 08: Reliability in Classical Test Theory
In this print module, Dr. Ross E. Traub and Dr. Glenn L. Rowley illustrated the idea of reliability or consistency with reference to two sets of test scores within the framework of classical test theory (CTT). Keywords: classical test theory, CTT, congeneric, KR-20, KR-21, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation, reliability, Spearman-Brown formula, parallel, tau-equivalent, test-retest, validity
Module 09: Standard Error of Measurement
In this print module, Dr. Leo M. Harvill discusses the standard error of measurement (SEM) for examinee scores in order to construct confidence bands around the observed scores. within a classical test theory (CTT) framework. Keywords: confidence bands, ​score bands, ​standard error of measurement, SEM, unreliability of test scores